KRV PUSTINJE: Evo zašto je Urmijsko jezero postalo potpuno crveno!


Ljeta 2016. godine, voda u Urmijskog jezera počela je dramatično da se mijenja od zelenog u crveno. To nije nov fenomen ali je posljednjih godina postao previše čest, a to nije jedina uznemirujuća činjenica o ovom jezeru.

Urmijsko jezero je slano jezero koje se nalazi u Iranu, između iranskih pokrajina Istočnog i Zapadnog Azerbajdžana, i dom je 120 ostrva. Iako je nekada bilo najveće jezero na Bliskom istoku, a šesto najveće slano jezero na svijetu (sa otprilike 5000 km²), smatra se da se površina jezera smanjila za 90 odsto od sedamdesetih godina, a najviše u posljednje dvije decenije. Piše The Bosnian Times

Uzrok ovome je ljudsko djelovanje odnosno izgradnja brane i ilegalnih bunara koji ometaju protok vode iz 60 okolnih reka i potoka koji snabdijevaju jezero. Ovi i drugi faktori doveli su do povećanja slanosti jezera što je direktno uticalo i na životinjski svijet. Ptice selice poput flamingosa, pelikana, patki i bijelih čaplji ne posjećuju više jezero jer je ono sada ostalo bez riba. Čak se smatra da su i soljeni škampi (Artemija salina), koji mogu da prežive na visokom nivou slanosti, izumrli.

Alge, organizmi koji sada bujaju, su razlog zašto je jezero pocrvenjelo. Vrsta Dunaliella salina je obično zelene boje, ali usljed smanjenja vode u jezeru i veće izloženosti sunčevoj svjetlosti, alge u svojim ćelijama proizvode karetonoide koji apsorbuju višak svjetlosti i tako postaju crvene. Također se smatra da je povećano prisustvo i bakterije Halobacteriaceae koja ima crveni pigment i kojoj odgovara slanoća.

Smanjenje vode u koritu otkriva so koju posjetioci mažu po telu, ali ga također rasturaju i olujni vjetrovi što nanosi štete ljudima i njihovim usjevima.

Urmijsko jezero, nazvano je po gradu gradu Urmiji što u prijevodu znači “lokva”, nakon iranske revolucije pokazuje znake ozdravljenja. Iranska vlada u saradnji sa međunarodnim organizacijama (kao što su UNESKO i Svjetska zdravstvena organizacija) ulaže napore da zatvori nelegalne bunare i poboljša tehnike navodnjavanja okolnih farmi. Sezonske kiše u posljednjim mjesecima godine daju oduška jezeru, ali ne predstavljaju dugoročno rješenje.



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